Victorian Electrical Technology
THE UNIVERSAL CURRENTS
“Ours is a world living hundreds of years behind its intended stage of development. Only a complete knowledge of this loss is the key to recapturing this wonder technology.” Gerry Vassilatos
The Electric Telegraph Of Samuel Morse
In UK history the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign, from 1837 until her death in 1901. During these years there was what can only be described as an explosion of electrical technology unequalled before or since. It was in the first year of Victoriana that Edward Davy invented the electric relay enabling a switch to be remotely opened and closed electrically. This would become useful in switching large and dangerous currents with low power, telephone exchanges, control systems and eventually electro-mechanical computers. The American inventor Samuel Morse developed telegraphy and the Morse code, the first step towards mass communications. The DC and then the AC generator and electrical distribution arrived, the electromagnet, the microphone (covered on another page) and James Clerk Maxwell published his four electrical equations and 1901, the end of the era saw the first transatlantic radio transmission of Guglielmo Marconi. There were a host of others, (see the link 1837 until 1901 ) in fact by the end of the era the prototypes of ALL of our modern electronic technology was established. This is as much a surprise to me as it must be to others, but look at the timeline at the above link.
One of our earliest electrical technologies and the first commercial use of electricity, the Electric Telegraph or just the Telegraph was an invention attributed to a long list of inventors; it’s been with us at least since the second decade of the 1800’s. Despite the undeniable ingenuity and inventiveness all but the system devised by American painter Samuel Morse have fallen by the wayside of obscurity. Some of the many good ideas were used in later technology. Morse Code was originally numerical and so a more familiar Morse Code was devised by Morse and Alfred Vail improving and expanding the system in 1840 to include individual letters and special characters. Morse and Vail also assigned the simplest Morse signals to the most frequently used letters in English for ease of use. This was to become the international Morse Code still in use.
The telegraph was the Internet of the Victorian era and Morse Code is still used by amateur radio operators. In Aviation and Aeronautics it is used as radio navigational aids such as VOR’s and NDB’s both identify in Morse Code – they are being replaced by GPS systems. According to Wiki: “Morse code has been employed as an assistive technology, helping people with a variety of disabilities to communicate. For example, the Android operating system versions 5.0 and higher allow users to input text using Morse Code as an alternative to a keypad or handwriting recognition” It still has it’s uses.
Compared to today’s technology the telegraph appears as a simple device, a battery operated make-or-break device the ‘telegraph key’, (a switch) which is manually tapped by the fingers of the operator to produce a binary dot dash signal according to how long the key was pressed or not. The signal was sent electrically along a single iron wire, the second connection to an Earth plate at each end completing the circuit – initially to save on the cost of two copper wires. At the original receiver end was an electromagnetic buzzer or sounder, similar to an old type doorbell without the bell, that sounded-out the keystrokes.
Telegraph power source
It was not long before it was realised that many of the batteries powering the telegraph never needed charging, that it would happily work without a battery or any other known power source. Unknown to the science of the time it was discovered that there is a constant flow of energy surging through the Earth’s crust and it was this energy that provided the power. Such a simple device as a telegraph key is an unlikely device to cause consternation for mainstream science but even today there is controversy as to the origin of the (telluric) Earth currents that powered the telegraph, as we will see.
Curious resistance vs distance relationship
twinkletoesengineering.info: “Presott quotes an experimenter (Matteucci) who measured resistance of earth vs distance. He found that current (for a fixed voltage) decreased with distance initially, but when the distance reached 60-100 yds the current stopped decreasing and for longer distances began to increase! At a distance of ten miles or more it is found that the resistance of the earth return is small compared with the resistance of the wire.
In other words (according to Prescott) something very interesting starts to happen at a distance of 60 to 100 yards. For distances less than 60-100 yards earth resistance is (pretty much) proportional to distance in the classic sense, but at 60-100 yards something very curious happens. A(s) this distance is approached earth resistance stops increasing with distance, and it plateaus at a maximum value (unfortunately no ohmic value is given). For distances longer than 60-100 yards resistance starts to decrease as distance increases! Prescott says that at a few miles or so it decreases to what the 19th century electricians generally refer to as a ‘null’ value. Again unfortunately references never give (that I can find) an ohmic value.” http://www.twinkletoesengineering.info/telegraph.htm
The writer above knows that something unusual is going-on but insists on solving the problem using Ohm’s law as he was taught to do. The problem with his method is that an increase in (telluric) voltage would appear as a drop in (ohmic) resistance. The problem is compounded by the fact that he does not know what the voltage was because it was not measured.
Wiki informs us with great confidence: “A telluric current (from Latin tellūs, “earth”), or Earth current, is an electric current which moves underground or through the sea. Telluric currents result from both natural causes and human activity, (leading the reader to believe that human activity has an integral part in their origin) and the discrete currents interact in a complex pattern. The currents are extremely low frequency and travel over large areas at or near the surface of the Earth.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telluric_current
On the first line of Wiki’s page on “telluric current (above)” it states: “Telluric currents result from both natural causes and human activity”… Wiki editors are ignorant of electrical engineering history: Telluric currents were discovered and studied in the 1830’s as a direct result of engineering the telegraph. It was the telegraph that first gave rise to electrical engineering. At this time in history there was no human electrical activity to be found in the ground, no overhead or underground power lines, no wireless communications. Therefore we can conclude that if in today’s world human electrical Earth current is detected it cannot be called telluric current as the name refers to natural as opposed to artificial phenomena. Unfortunately both have become combined into one and electrical knowledge has diminished as a direct result of this kind of thinking.
Additionally we have the phrase, “The currents are extremely low frequency”, no explanation as to how or why telluric currents have a frequency or even if or why they do. They don’t know why and information has become scarce. Wiki’s information comes from science and science really does not want to know because it has been told to ignore such things. Some websites contend that the currents derive their frequency from the Earth’s magnetic field…
Mainstream science has an irritating habit of separating and isolating electric current from magnetism as if they are able to exist alone. Every school-kid knows that electric current has an accompanying magnetic field – one cannot exist without the other, but science ignores this because: velikovsky.info: “Ralph E. Juergens (6 May 1924 – 2 November 1979) is notable for his contributions documenting the so-called “Velikovsky Affair”, with co-authors Alfred de Grazia and Livio Stecchini. He subsequently developed of a hypothesis in which the Sun and stars are electrically powered, contrary to the standard view that the Sun (is) powered by nuclear fusion. While the “Electric Sun” hypothesis has received unfavourable review, it has become a core component of the non-mainstream Electric Universe hypothesis.” https://www.velikovsky.info/ralph-juergens/
“Unfavourable review” is a gross understatement as it seemed in the 1950’s – 70’s that the whole discipline of astronomy had gone bonkers to a man. It is taboo within academia to mention electricity in space, it’s a magnetic field – alone!
Telluric current is also a taboo subject as it is ‘free energy’, energy that requires no monetary expenditure. According to Wiki and mainstream science free energy is a conspiracy theory. But then again “conspiracy theory” is a conspiracy theory, devised to divert attention away from the fact that telegraph electrical theory including telluric free energy, originated with engineers and scientists, some of whom saw it as a useful free energy source. (Scientific paradox, bad for busines)
Earth’s magnetic field
It is claimed by the mainstream that the Earth’s magnetic field is electrically generated by a liquid iron core (a dynamo) at the centre of the Earth. What is not admitted is that there is absolutely no evidence in support of this theory – apart from the fact that the magnetic field somehow exists. And so we have a circular argument of the kind so beloved by science where the evidence (the magnetic field) becomes the proof of the source of the evidence (the dynamo). No one is likely to go to the centre of the Earth to make observations, it’s an assumption.
What happens when you heat a ferromagnetic (iron) material?
scienceabc.com: “When you heat iron, what you essentially do is supply additional thermal energy to it. This makes the tiny magnets in iron become promoted to high-energy states, pointing in the opposite direction with respect to their neighbors. This means that they are less aligned than before, so their ‘combined’ magnetism reduces. This goes on if you continue to heat iron until a point is reached beyond which iron loses its ferromagnetic properties and ceases to be a ferromagnet.
(…Earth’s core consists of molten iron, which is so incredibly hot (nearly 6000 degrees Celsius) that it makes the core as hot as the surface of the sun itself.
…Iron stops being ferromagnetic at 1043 K (around 770 degrees Celsius/1417 Fahrenheit.)
This particular temperature, i.e., the temperature at which a certain material loses its permanent magnetic properties is known as the Curie temperature. Its value is different for different materials.
To put it all in simple words, molten iron present in the core doesn’t produce a magnetic field directly; rather, it produces an electric current, (How without a magnetic field?) which in turn produces an electromagnetic effect, which ultimately produces the strong magnetic field of the Earth’s core.”
(cadxx Note: We have science now sanctioning a free energy source that would normally be debunked as being impossible. Does anyone in their right mind believe any of this?)
Encyclopaedia Britannica: “Telluric currents arise from charges moving to attain equilibrium between regions of differing electric potentials; these differences in potential are set up by several conditions, including very low-frequency electromagnetic waves from space, particularly from the magnetosphere incident upon the Earth’s surface, and moving charged masses in the ionosphere and the atmosphere.” https://www.britannica.com/science/telluric-current
What are these low frequency waves from space? It is known that telluric currents change with a day/night cycle and we all know that the day night cycle is caused by the rotation of the Earth in and out of sunlight.
Quora answers: Does Earth’s magnetic field have a frequency?
Malcolm Shute, Still studying electronic engineering (since 1974)
Answered Aug 21 2017 · Author has 1.9k answers and 1.3m answer views
“As others have pointed out, though, you could consider (the) very low frequency of the daily rotation of the earth on the magnetic field that you measure at your house, and the even lower frequency of occasional flips in the earth’s magnetic field..”
He’s saying that the frequency of the magnetic field is one cycle per day plus a cycle every several thousand years. And so we have no scientific explanation for the frequency and no explanation for the source of telluric currents. It’s at times such as these I return to pre 1930’s days when much of science was not influenced by market forces, dogma, prejudice and possessed with an extreme but selective scepticism.
The telegraph, free energy and scientific dogma
The Earth Energy of Fr. Athanasus Kircher (1602 – 1680)
(c) Robert Neil Boyd Rescued and reblogged from web.archive.
“The vast array of energetic anomalies of early telegraphic and telephonic systems caused the empirical engineers of the mid-1800s to lean favorably toward the non-electric earth-energy theories of Fr. Athanasus Kirchner, because his theories could explain and qualify the observed anomalies, while normal electrical theory could not. Kircher, in his turn, had developed his expressions from the philosophers and alchemists, when science was devoid of dogma, and numerous parallel earth-energy events were collectively then called “electricity”. The writings of Kircher were taken almost directly from the literature of the unencumbered researches of the Victorian Age. Based on Kircher’s writings, attentions were focused on collating and collecting ground-systems anomalies in the qualitative manner of Kircher. This opened a series of discoveries and unexpected surprises as the ancient themes of the alchemists proved their worthiness and accuracy in many unexpected quarters. During this time period of the 1800s, the telluric notions of the alchemists came to be viewed as quite relevant and essential by many engineers and vital scientific knowledge to such notable personages as Crookes, and Lodge, who involved themselves deeply in the “psychic effects” and “spiritual effects” of telluric energies without fear of ridicule
The earth energies observed by the engineers of telegraphy and telephony in the mid-1800s behaved exactly like the powerfully surging earth currents described by Kircher. The engineers observed earth power so enormous it could not be attributed to electrostatic accumulations, nor to the weak electrical strains induced in ground systems by auroral discharges. These currents were fiery and potent. World-connecting energies of vast, mysterious, and intelligent content. According to the alchemists, Kirchner, and many of the engineers of the mid 1800s, these energetic flows were direct representatives of Creation, direct evidence of the Divine in operation.
Indeed, the “Telluric Energy” of Kircher far exceeded the frail power of mere electrical currents, as large as that power might be considered to be, by some. Kircher’s writings brought about an inference that, contained in these energies, were the awesome secrets of the processes of Creation, the Power by which the real world was both constantly generated, and sustained. Those enterprising engineers who endeavoured to draw their communicative power from the Telluric currents, found themselves engaged in surpassing technologies, empowered by the world-generative Source.
Unfortunately, the environment of dogmatic electrical science was not far behind, so these efforts failed due to lack of favor, not due to any lack of efficacy”. (The vitalists were saying that the free energy worked and the dogmatists were wrong)
https://web.archive.org/web/20071015150102/http://www.rialian.com/rnboyd/earth-energy-kirchner.htm See also: https://borderlandsciences.org/journal/vol/48/n06/Vassilatos_Recording_Telluric_Signals.html
The embroidered language of the author above is referring to the same Vaporic or Etheric force, Orgone the Od and the longitudinal scalar waves described in Nikola Tesla’s ‘radiant energy’ and by many of his his contemporaries. What seems not to be understood by today’s experimenters in Tesla technology is that Tesla’s later experiments were carried-out with pulsed DC current, not AC – an energy just as described by the old Victorian telegraph engineers. Pulsed DC was and sometimes is still is used in order to drive AC transformers with a DC current. Tesla was using what he called disruptive discharges to produce an energy that was not quite electricity, although it behaved in a similar way. Sometimes called “cold electricity”, what better device than the telegraph key to produce disruptive discharges (pulses) in a DC system? This of course is still beyond the (deliberately muddle-headed) electrical theories of modern science.
exonews.org: “Nikola Tesla showed he could send electrical energy without wires. It turned out not to be good for business and it was also classified. He used longitudinal waves… much like sound waves… … Scalar waves provide communication between the transmitter and receiver as a single or whole system. The transmitter of longitudinal waves “knows” if the receiver is on… Through resonance the receiver acquires electrical energy and can operate a motor or perhaps light an LED without the latter being hooked to an external power source or a battery… The longitudinal waves were suppressed and speed-of-light-limit-obeying (spacetime limited), transverse Hertzian waves have been used in technological applications until today. Thus, in relation to the competing views between Tesla and Hertz, Hertz won the day for the conventional ‘vanilla’ (other realities, the “paranormal” and parapsychology) rejected by the ‘scientific’ and the conventionally educated world.”
Aether, the medium through which the scalar wave travels like sound, a solid scientific theory at the time of the telegraph, proven over and again by the pioneering electrical researchers. Later it was pseudo-debunked to make way for the theories of Albert Einstein that never endangered market forces and the electron particles of J J Thomson that led scientific and engineering electronics up a blind alley. What becomes apparent is that an early free energy device, the telegraph, in the process of being developed by scientists and engineers, was scuppered by extremist materialist factions of a science that is supposed to support the well-being of mankind (another paradox) – it ensured the wealth and power of the energy barons who provided funding for the nonscience of the dogmatists. It’s all very cosy. The story now told by the sceptics and dogmatists describes free energy as being due to the over-active imagination of conspiracy theorists.
There are other examples as we will see…
Earth batteries and Ground Energy
Gerry Vassilatos ‘Lost Science’: “Earth batteries tap into earth electricity and draw it out for use. Some telegraphic lines continued to operate well into the 1930’s with no other batteries than their ground end-plates. Certain systems continued using their original earth batteries without replacement in excess of 40 years! Earth batteries are intriguing because they seem never to corrode in proportion to the amount of electrical power which they generate. In fact, they scarcely corrode at all. Exhumed earth batteries showed minimal corrosion. A mysterious self-regenerative action takes place in these batteries, a phenomenon worthy of modern study.”
“Earth battery” refers to harvesting energy from the ground. All that’s needed is two dissimilar metals (copper/iron – zinc/iron – zinc plated steel) – tubes, metal strips or plates buried about 18 inches 457.2mm or more in the ground, separated by a distance, that gives the best results. Wires are attached to each metal tube and you have free power. Much depends on finding a sweet spot in the ground and in some places there is none at all. These were used by all and sundry in the Victorian era as there were no electrical utilities. Nathan Stubblefield below used and patented what can be described as a transformer an iron bolt with insulated iron and copper windings. The whole thing was dropped into a can full of water and buried in the ground. Tens of amps have been reported but little or no research is happening today.
If Stubblefield’s earth energy transformer worked, and there is no reason to believe otherwise because the telegraph worked in the same way, then it’s proof that Earth energy has a frequency. A transformer on a DC current would not work without undulations in the energy source.
Stubblefield “U.S. Patent 600,457 Electric battery”. May 8, 1898.
See: Earth Energy & Vocal Radio: Nathan Stubblefield
by Gerry Vassilatos
Luigi Gino Valerio Rota 1886-1951
Although he is outside of our timeline Rota must be one of the last researchers to study telluric energy:
The Washington Times from Washington, District of Columbia · Page 7 (February 26, 1922) Telluric Current to Open Vast Realm, Says Scientist. By F. A. WRAY. International New* Service. LONDON, Feb. 25.
It has uncanny force
Harnessing of Earth’s Elements Now in Bounds of Possibility.
An invention that will revolutionize the world! This is the claim of a young, almost unknown, Italian scientist, Professor L. V. Rota, who claims to have discovered the secret of telluric currents. “My invention,” states the professor, “can cause battleships, submarines, aeroplanes and guns to crumble to dust at any moment that any government gives the order to move them.
Speed up Travel.
It can be harnessed up for the service of man and can immensely speed up travel, transport and communication, whether by land, water or air. It can cheapen-every sort of manufacture and enhance every domestic and social immunity. “For instance, a cargo of mails or goods could be sent across the Atlantic through the upper air, without a human being aboard the craft, at a speed of ten to 400 miles an hour. The vessel would rise vertically the prescribed height, travel horizontally in a predetermined direction and drop gently and punctually upon its destination.
“Travel Any Distance.”
“Wireless messages, dispatched from no costly or elaborate stations, would travel to any distance free from all danger of dissipation or confusion and with absolute privacy as between sender and receiver. “The nature of all mineral and oil deposits in any part of the world and their depth and volume will be accurately determined without so much as sinking a shaft. “Currents rushing through the air will provide the householder with cheaper, safer and more brilliant lighting than he has ever ventured to desire. “A new power for every Industry will first make coal, steam, oil and electricity more efficient and afterward will dispense with them altogether. “When our company Is formed? within eighteen months we will give spectacular demonstrations that all these things and more can be accomplished.”
Currents Long Suspected.
The existence of these currents, which emanate from the earth (hence their name) have been suspected by other scientists. Lord Kelvin before his death declared their reality. Professor Rota claims to be the first to discover and record them. They may also be described as “molecular force,” and they must not be confused, says the professor, with Ampere’s thermo-electric currents or with Foucault currents. It is the study of these telluric currents, in their nature, intensity and direction, that is believed to open up such possibilities of tremendous Importance for the future of humanity. Professor Rota has recently given a preliminary demonstration at Marseilles. With a cigar-shaped apparatus, seventeen feet long, thirty Inches In diameter and weighing 200 pounds, he convinced a number of press correspondents that this apparatus could remain suspended motionless In the air for twenty-four hours, carrying a considerable weight, and be propelled or stopped without the use of any mechanical motor.
See also: http://www.wikirota.org/en/The_Work_of_Louis_Rota
The above may seem to some a fantasy, but I recall these same words were spoken by several others who researched natural energies including Nikola Tesla, C P Steinmetz, John Keely and Nathan Stubblefield (above), to name but a few – all soundly debunked by science.
The Precocious Telephone of Antonio Meucci
The original telephone system used the telegraph wires and so we would expect to read about the effects of telluric currents. What appears to have happened is the telluric currents have been downgrade to that of a nuisance using technical terms like “stray currents” “earth potential rise” (EPR) also called “ground potential rise”. There will be more on this when we get to electrical power distribution.
Wiki: “Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci (13 April 1808 – 18 October 1889) was an Italian inventor and an associate of Giuseppe Garibaldi (a major political figure in the history of Italy (and a popular biscuit)). Meucci is best known for developing the first telephone. Meucci set up a form of voice-communication link in his Staten Island, New York, home that connected the second-floor bedroom to his laboratory. He submitted a patent caveat for his telephonic device to the U.S. Patent Office in 1871, but there was no mention of electromagnetic transmission of vocal sound in his caveat. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell was granted a patent for the electromagnetic transmission of vocal sound by undulatory electric current. Despite the longstanding general crediting of Bell with the accomplishment, the Italian government[specify] later honored Meucci[when?] with the title “Inventore ufficiale del telefono” or “Official inventor of the telephone”.[how?] The U.S. House of Representatives also honored Meucci in a resolution in 2002 for having had some role in the development of the telephone (although the U.S. Senate did not join the resolution and the interpretation of the resolution is disputed).” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Meucci
It’s well recorded that Meucci made copious notes of his telephonic and other experiments and the “Patent caveat” used by Wiki at the link above is for a hearing aid for the deaf. Meucci wrote in his notes: “It consists of a vibrating diaphragm and an electrified magnet with a spiral wire that wraps around it. The vibrating diaphragm alters the current of the magnet. These alterations of current, transmitted to the other end of the wire, create analogous vibrations of the receiving diaphragm and reproduce the word.” https://everipedia.org/wiki/lang_en/Antonio_Meucci/
Wiki has the wrong patent. Both Meucci and Alexander Graham Bell were interested transmitting sound to the deaf as Bell was a teacher of the deaf. The telephone used by Meucci to keep in contact with his wife was according to his notes undoubtedly electrical in nature. It would be surprising if Bell, unlike Wiki, was unaware of it.
South China Morning Post
scmp.com: “On reading this, many Italians like myself had just one thought – that this was the voice of a thief. We know that Bell did not invent the telephone, but stole the idea without acknowledgement from Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci. Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1847, and moved to Canada in 1870. He died in the US in 1922 as a highly respected millionaire scientist entrepreneur. He was indeed a gifted technician but had a nasty side to his personality. He presided for many years over the Eugenics Society, which proposed – and, in several cases, achieved – the forced sterilisation of individuals it considered” inferior. ” (Note: inferior usually means different, you may not like them but killing them or preventing them from being born means you are criminally insane.)
Bell did not invent telephone, US rules
Scot accused of finding fame by stealing Italian’s ideas
theguardian.com: “Italy hailed the redress of a historic injustice yesterday after the US Congress recognised an impoverished Florentine immigrant as the inventor of the telephone rather than Alexander Graham Bell. Historians and Italian-Americans won their battle to persuade Washington to recognise a little-known mechanical genius, Antonio Meucci, as a father of modern communications, 113 years after his death.” (But not Wiki editors)
Wiki does it again: “Alexander Graham Bell (‘Graham’ pronounced /ˈɡreɪ.əm/) (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He also founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in 1885.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Graham_Bell
Bell was not a scientist or an engineer he was a teacher of the deaf.
I have no idea why Bell is given so much kudos as an inventor when his actual contribution to the telephone was minimal. His duplex or harmonic telegraph that we find all over the Internet was never tested in the field. It’s also interesting to note that the original telephone patented by Bell would have been unworkable without the inclusion of the carbon microphone that he certainly did not invent himself. It may be contentious to argue that the inventor of the carbon mic was the true inventor of the telephone. If it were possible to find some information I’d put money on David Edward Hughes but it’s not possible at the time of writing. Hughes seemed to invent for his own amusement, avoiding self publicity, we meet him again on another page. See Wikitalk: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:David_Edward_Hughes
The Carbon Microphone
Wiki: “The carbon microphone, also known as carbon button microphone, button microphone, or carbon transmitter, is a type of microphone, a transducer that converts sound to an electrical audio signal. It consists of two metal plates separated by granules of carbon. One plate is very thin and faces toward the speaking person, acting as a diaphragm. Sound waves striking the diaphragm cause it to vibrate, exerting a varying pressure on the granules, which in turn changes the electrical resistance between the plates. Higher pressure lowers the resistance as the granules are pushed closer together. A steady direct current is passed between the plates through the granules. The varying resistance results in a modulation of the current, creating a varying electric current that reproduces the varying pressure of the sound wave. In telephony, this undulating current is directly passed through the telephone wires to the central office (exchange?)…
… Before the proliferation of vacuum tube amplifiers in the 1920s, carbon microphones were the only practical means of obtaining high-level audio signals. They were widely used in telephone systems until the 1980s, while other applications used different microphone designs much earlier. Their low cost, inherently high output and frequency response characteristic were well suited for telephony.
hzandbits.com: “Who invented the carbon mic? Just try and google that very phrase right now, browse around, and see if you don’t come up with about three different answers! It seems a patent battle between Thomas Alva Edison and Emile Berliner in the 1870’s and 80’s was won by Edison (according to Wikipedia) – but elsewhere the invention is credited to Berliner – and not a word about Edison. To confuse matters even more, one David Edward Hughes also gets credit some places, but upon closer inspection, it is revealed that what he did was to somehow refine the original design by Edison (again Wikipedia).”
reference.com: “Another important invention in the history of the microphone is the 1878 carbon microphone by David Edward Hughes. Though the carbon microphone was not further developed until the 1920s, Hughes’ original concept is a base model for carbon microphones in use in 2014.”
The single aim of the telegraph and telephone inventors was always wireless communications. This is with the same Morse code but without wires, the transmission of the human voice came later:
smecc.org: “In the year 1868 Mahlon Loomis demonstrated to a group of Congressmen and eminent scientists a wireless “communication” system between two sites 14 to 18 miles apart. Mahlon became interested in using the electrical charges obtainable from the upper atmosphere by means of kites carrying metal wires. At first he planned to use this natural source of electricity to replace batteries on a telegraph circuit.
It is noted in many references that this was something that was actually achieved on a telegraph line that was 400 miles long.
Later on, from experiments in this area, Mahlon discovered that a kite sent aloft would affect the flow of current in another kite that was some distance away from the first kite. This set him on a path of developing it as a system of wireless telegraphy for practical long distance communications.
The year 1868, and Mahlon Loomis demonstrates to a group of Congressmen and eminent scientists a wireless “communication” system between two sites 14 to 18 miles apart. There seems to be some discrepancy as to the distance in the various records that exist, however in the picture that was drawn by Mahlon Loomis, 14 miles is mentioned. This and many other pictures and notes are on file in the Library of Congress.”
Compare the debunking revision at Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahlon_Loomis
Around 1879 to 1886 David Hughes performed a series of experiments in which his equipment transmitted wireless signals up to 500 yards. It was soundly debunked by visiting scientists of the Royal Society and Hughes dropped the idea, because, he reasoned, he was not a physicist
Wiki: Heinrich_Hertz, “Hertz now had a way to proceed with the “Berlin Prize” problem of 1879 on proving Maxwell’s theory (although the actual prize had expired uncollected in 1882). He used a Ruhmkorff coil-driven spark gap and one-meter wire pair as a radiator. Capacity spheres were present at the ends for circuit resonance adjustments. His receiver was a simple half-wave dipole antenna with a micrometer spark gap between the elements. This experiment produced and received what are now called radio waves in the very high frequency range.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Hertz
There are several more contenders for the first wireless transmissions and it appears Marconi stole from them all.
Wiki Guglielmo Marconi: “In the summer of 1895, Marconi moved his experiments outdoors on his father’s estate in Bologna. He tried different arrangements and shapes of antenna but even with improvements he was able to transmit signals only up to one half mile, a distance Oliver Lodge had predicted in 1894 as the maximum transmission distance for radio waves.
A breakthrough came in the summer of 1895, when Marconi found that much greater range could be achieved after he raised the height of his antenna and, borrowing from a technique used in wired telegraphy, grounding his transmitter and receiver. With these improvements, the system was capable of transmitting signals up to 2 miles (3.2 km) and over hills.”
Although Marconi is remembered for his successes, and he certainly did commercialise wireless telegraphy, there are a string of other names of experimenters, not mentioned above, who preceded him. But Marconi had inherent properies the others lacked – money, influence and a kind of blindness when it came to other peoples intellectual property. We will delve more deeply on another page.
Ground antenna radio
There has been much talk about VLF (very low frequency) regarding telluric ground currents and this appears to counter the argument in favour of short wave or VHF (very high frequency) ground transmissions. My own awakening regarding this was many years ago when I was working with TV service and aerials. The customers home in question was opposite a gas holder or gasometer as they were called. For those who have not seen them they are domestic gas storage devices that rise up and down dependent on how much gas is inside – huge things. The TV reception would vary in sync with the movements of the gasometer and at times there was no signal at all. In such cases we would walk around with a dipole aerial on a long lead hoping to find a sweet spot. Accidents happen and I dropped the aerial on the floor at the back of the TV. What do you know? – a perfect picture appeared on the screen. We tacked the aerial to the skirting board close to the floor and received no more complaints.
There was a time, that ended around the 1950’s when all radio’s had an earth connection and many people knew that their radio would work with just the earth lead connected, through trail and error. I’ve tried this and it works. Just a simple copper pipe driven into the ground will give good reception in bad signal areas or anywhere else. The amazing thing is, that the signal seems to improve with use.
Experiment: Ground Antennas
EXPERIMENT WITH A COPPER GROUND PIPE
By Gerry Vassilatos & Michael Theroux
“…Wear gloves when performing this portion of the experiment. Using a small sledge, carefully drive in a 2 foot long copper pipe. The pipe you choose can be much longer according to your local needs. I left a 4 inch section above ground for the hookup. Obtain a sufficient length of coaxial cable (RG 58 works fine) to establish a lead between the pipe and your radio receiver. If long enough, an old straight electric guitar cable will do. I clipped off both phono plugs and used the center conductor for my experiments. Neatly trim away the outer shielding with rubber tape. First connect the center lead directly to the “aerial” terminal of your receiver. If your receiver has only an external antenna, connect the ground lead directly to this antenna Now carefully drop this wire from your window to the ground antenna. Close the window to hold the line, and go outside to establish your connection.
The line will instantly be flooded with ground currents, very high potentials which will not cause “shock”, but which may over-excite your system. Take care not to handle these lines for too long a time without rubber gloves. The line from ground may appear “dead” to all
appearance, but it is a source of powerful vitalistic effects which can cause fatigue and other congestive sensations.
Once attached to your receiver, leave the wire alone. The ground currents may be applied to any kind of receiver. I successfully received television signals with a ground antenna, obtaining surprisingly clarified signals on most of the shorter wave channels (7 through UHF) without any other aerial. Ground antennas are very useful for those who live in mountain-bound locations, where television reception is distorted or even absent…” Read it all at the link: http://www.keelynet.com/interact/arc_1_99-4_99/00000628.htm
Electric Power Generation and Distribution
In 1820 Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry invented a primitive electric motor, and in 1831, documented that an electric current can be produced in a wire moving near a magnet – or a magnet near a wire, an original demonstration of the principle of the electric motor/generator. 1881 and Thomas Edison’s direct current (DC) utility began over short distances. In that same year, Nikola Tesla envisioned a future wherein the use of AC current would enable electrical energy to travel long distances. By 1893, thanks to Telsa’s endeavours the first modern power plant became operational.
But electric power transmission, as could probably have been foreseen, was found to have the same blessings and curses as did the telegraph before it. Sub-station transformers were exploding due to ‘stray’ environmental currents in the power lines, currents that could not be traced back to the generators or anywhere else. Telluric ground energies of the kind described by Kircher above were surging through the wires with even greater ferocity, huge electrical discharges of millions of volts were reaching up into the atmosphere. I’m told that Thomas Edison’s DC distribution would throw out blue sparks when switch-on, that occasionally killed people.
In the video link below Eric P Dollard shows pictures of exploding transformers and quotes from mostly out-of-print books by CP Steinmetz, Oliver Heaviside, JJ Thomson and Nikola Tesla. It appears that around the 1890’s at a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers it was agreed that electrical synthesis was possible, that a self sustaining electrical generator could be engineered. In other words that electricity was available – free of cost. This was certainly bad for business and although we have no historical account, they must have been warned off in no uncertain terms. What we do have in written history is the undeniable fact that Tesla’s funding was withdrawn and he was prevented from continuing his electrical experimentation for the rest of his life.
See: Eric Dollard – Origin of Energy Synthesis
The narrative above has been written-out of history for obvious reasons. To admit to it happening is tantamount to admitting that the energy barons have been fleecing us for a hundred years and more. It has been branded a conspiracy theory – but one that was started not by conspiracy theorists but by scientific and engineering experimenters and theorists. The transformer explosions are still with us as a few minutes on Google search will confirm: Search “transformer explosions video” About 1,670,000 results (0.45 seconds)
There is a huge area worthy of study here and I’m sure I’ll be adding to this page as the information becomes available.