Electronics Science Education and Utter Confusion
The circuit as can be seen by the battery holders has current flowing in both directions in the same wire. I wired it a couple of weeks ago ago and I was challenged by various readers as to what was happening and why they thought I’d got it wrong. I checked and it appears the circuit, according to mainstream theory is impossible – but it works. So I came-up with the new arrangement below:Above we have an alternative configuration for the benefit of the sceptics among us. The reader will note that we now have four circuits, any three of them using the same wires with four voltages all moving in opposite directions simultaneously. I checked the circuit with a compass needle and there is no magnetism in the crossed wires.
Below we have the circuit wired-up and working. The voltages are, as is obvious, 1.5v 3.v 4.5v and 6volts, the bulbs are 6v filament type. Each bulb and battery is sharing a circuit with two others and so we have three circuits of various voltage and polarity using the same wire. (This is best seen in the diagram above) There is current moving in the crossed wires in both directions and with different voltages simultaneously. Each bulb and battery shares a circuit with the others. The polarity can be seen by the wires from the batteries. I challenge readers to give me an explanation in terms of scientific or any other theory as to how electrons move in both directions when they are negatively charged and strongly repelling each other? I challenge them to tell me in terms of modern electrical theory what is going-on in the crossed wires?
Note: What looks like a white wire bottom left is washout effect from the bright bulb. I had no white wire at the time and the circuit is exactly as is the diagram above it.
eevblog.com says: Can current flow in opposite directions simultaneously through same wire?
The answer to your question is yes, but currents flowing in opposite directions will cancel each other out with the wire carrying the difference between the two.
The advice above is based upon argument from authority a logical fallacy by someone who has not investigated.
If the two current sources cancel then how do the bulbs work?
How do electrons behave in such a circuit?
How do they bypass electrons travelling in the opposite direction, surely they would repel each other in all directions? No flow, no light, but it works.
Why don’t they cancel each other?
What’s going-on in the crossed wires?
What is the theory for this?
reddit.com. Why can’t electricity flow both ways down a wire?
It can, just not at the same time. Imagine water running through a pipe. It can flow one way, or it can flow the other, but if it tried to go both ways at the same time it’d just cancel out and not go anywhere.
The first wiring diagram above is not new, there were one or two just like it on the internet for some time. You would think that by now someone would have wired it up and tried it to see what happens? You can find the original here
reddit.com: Electrons flow from an area where there are more electrons, to an area where there are less electrons. If you wanted to make an electric circuit with only one wire going to the battery, and current flowing both to and from the battery in that one wire (which I think is what you’re asking), then you’d have to make it so that each end of the wire had both more and less electrons than the other end. Clearly this doesn’t make sense, and is impossible.
No it’s not brilliant. The wrong headed arguments above have a common factor – they assume electron theory to be correct because they were told it is correct.
No one ever bothered to check the facts because they are afraid to challenge science. Why are they afraid? Because science is no longer science, it’s a religion. A religion depends on faith, not experiments.
The wrong-headed faith-driven push-electron theory
answers.com says: Electrical current doesn’t work quite the way that you would think.
A simple way to describe electrical current is to imagine a straw filled with marbles. Each marble represents an electron. If you push an electron in one end of the straw, and the straw was full, a marble would exit the other end of the straw.
The electrons in the straw are (according to theory) all negatively charged and as such repel each other strongly. The straw cannot be full and electrons cannot be touching because the electrons are pushing in opposite directions. Now try to imagine what is happening in the graphics above with marbles moving in both directions in the same straw (wire)? It’s not going to work is it?
The pull-electron theory is full of holes
answers.com: However, while that example gives an idea of what is going on, electricity is actually exactly the opposite of that. An electron is “pulled” out of one end of a conductor, which crates an electron “hole”. An electron next to the hole moves into that empty spot, and so on and so on. So, even though you could visualize the electricity moving through the conductor as “pushing a marble”, it’s really “pulling one out” and marbles are moving to “fill the gap”. (This is known as hole movement in electricity).
And Mother Nature is an insane frantic individual rushing around with a bag of cake decorations that she spits into every electrical interaction.
How do you get this to happen in a single conductor?
This is where we are required to forget that electrons (according to theory) are negatively charged. “marbles are moving to “fill the gap”. What is attracting them to the gap? Are the holes positive, if so wouldn’t electrons loose their charge? And the elephant in the room is how do holes that were once electrons move?
Quantum physics – and ever more confusing
physics.stackexchange.com: So yes, the electron/hole model allows for you to look at the system as two different particles of the same charge, but one has a negative mass, or you can model the system as two particles with the same sign mass, but opposite sign charges. [Opposite sign charges cancel!]
[This is gobbledegook, what is negative mass? What the hell is opposite sign mass?] According to Wiki:
“In theoretical physics, negative mass is matter whose mass is of opposite sign to the mass of normal matter, e.g. −1 kg.” … It is used in certain speculative hypotheses, such as on the construction of traversable wormholes…
[Totally meaningless and anti-logic, what the hell are traversable wormholes, what is negative mass? A note for all space cadets: It’s science fiction.]
The takeaway is still that electrons and holes are two different things and the “holes are just missing electrons” model is inaccurate and does not work (again, see the Hall effect).
http://What are “electron holes” in semiconductors?
And good luck with the Hall effect!
A current can flow both ways through a single conductor without loss or increased resistance because electrons do not exist.
Electrons don’t move quickly enough to fill the holes.
Wiki then tells us that: …Typically, electric charges in solids flow slowly. For example, in a copper wire of cross-section 0.5 mm2, carrying a current of 5 A, the drift velocity of the electrons is on the order of a millimetre per second.
So why don’t generators and cathode ray tubes run out of electrons?
Electromagnetic waves 50%–99% of the speed of light
Wiki, Speed of electricity: The speed of this flow has multiple meanings. In everyday electrical and electronic devices, the signals or energy travel as electromagnetic waves typically on the order of 50%–99% of the speed of light, while the electrons themselves move (drift) much more slowly. The speed at which energy or signals travel down a cable is actually the speed of the electromagnetic wave travelling along (guided by) the cable. i.e. a cable is a form of a waveguide. The propagation of the wave is affected by the interaction with the material(s) in and surrounding the cable, caused by the presence of electric charge carriers (interacting with the electric field component) and magnetic dipoles (interacting with the magnetic field component)… …The energy/signal usually flows overwhelmingly outside the electric conductor of a cable; the purpose of the conductor is thus not to conduct energy, but to guide the energy-carrying wave.
So why do we need electrons?
We need the electron because the electron gave birth to particle physics. If we take away the first born child then the whole of particle physics becomes questionable!
It gets even more confusing:
Conventional Flow versus Electron Current
So electrical engineering current flow is opposite to the physicists current flow and it doesn’t matter?
So why do we need electrons and plus and minus?
Can it possibly get worse when we look at transistors?
Transistor marble in a tube analogy: (a) Electrons move right in the conduction band as electrons enter tube. (b) Hole moves right in the valence band as electrons move left.
It appears the electron needs a hole (with no marble) to move into.
physics.stackexchange.com: What are “electron holes” in semiconductors?
No one at stack exchange above agrees if holes are real or just a metaphor to explain moving charge. This is what happens in education when the teacher is confused. This confusion is imposed by science and benefits no one but the empire of science. It is meant to be confusing to maintain an aura of scientific mystique.
If the reader wants maximum confusion see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_hole
And: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hall_effect neither of which work in a single conductor like the circuits at the top of this page.
Electricity is a moving energy field, an electromagnetic current, a disruption in the aether medium (combined electric and magnetic) producing a ‘dielectric field’ that is called electricity. A *dielectric* a non conducting substance or an insulator is exactly what so called conductors are, they do not conduct they store electrical energy. Electricity flows from more to less energy (discharge) not from negative to positive or vice versa. Everything has electricity and so it flows from an excess to a deficiency. Electromagnetic fields move through a medium with a compression/rarification motion like sounds through the air. As we have seen above negative energy does not exist except in the minds of mathematicians who dream of the square root of a unicorn.
Ignore anyone who says it can’t be done because ‘can’t be done’ is what science does best. Think for yourself
I invite constructive criticism.